Sunday, March 22, 2020

Reformation Its Religious And Educational Impact Essays

Reformation: Its Religious And Educational Impact Alvarez 1 Carlos A. Alvarez Veroy Mr. and Mrs. Alvarez 10th Grade Research Project 6 June 2001 Reformation: Its Religious and Educational Impact Throughout the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries a movement called the Reformation took place in Europe. But merely being more than just another religious movement, the Reformation was the moment in history in which God showed His great power and Salvation to the world through the lives of men like John Wycliffe, John Huss, William Tyndale, Martin Luther and John Calvinmen which were determined to die if it was necessary for the Lords causea moment in which two distinct forcesthe desire of learning and the rebirth of the Word of Godmade it possible for people to believe in the Bible as the only absolute source of wisdom and truth, putting it as the final authority over man and church. As stated in World History and Cultures by George Thompson and Jerry Combee, the story of how the Protestant Reformation began is a story of how brave men in a world dominated by the Holy Roman Empire desperately searched for the truth about salvation and found it in the Bible and how they were willing to step out on the sole authority of Gods Word, even if it meant to stand alone for what is right(246). I think that Martin Luther clearly expressed this thought when he said, Alvarez 2 Unless I am refuted and convicted by testimonies of Scripture, my conscience is bound in the word of God: I cannot and will not recant anything. I cannot do otherwise. Here I stand. God help me, Amen. Before the printing press was invented, books and Bibles were very rare, and people thought that the Roman Catholic Church held the final authority concerning religion and God. The Catholic Church not only possessed the few Bibles available, moreover they were the only ones who could interpret them since they were written only in Latin and Hebrew and only monks and highly educated people could read those languages. They even set a law which prohibited to everyone but the church to have Bibles, and if anyone else wanted to translate it, he had to translate it from the Catholic manuscripts and not from the original Hebrew or Latin texts. As I said before, books were not very abundant and making one was not an easy task. Edith Simon writes, The making of a book was a slow, expensive process that had improved but little in a thousand years. The professional scribe might spend four or five months copying out a 200-page text; even more costly than his labors were the 25 sheepskins needed t o make enough parchment for a book of that length(134). Therefore, if you wanted to have a Bible of your own, you did not only had to pay a lot for it but had to know how to read Latin or Hebrew and since in those days education levels were so poor and Alvarez 3 expensive, only a small number of people could afford it, making it for anyone a great privilege to read and write. However, in 1450, Johann Gutenberg invented the printing press and by 1501, there were printing presses in 110 European towns and cities. This made literature available to all class levels, opening peoples minds and encouraging them to study and educate themselves in any field of education that they wanted. This invention became later one of the key tools God used to carry the Gospel to all parts of the world. Throughout all this time the Roman Catholic Church dominated almost every social aspect of the European life, including politics, economy, religion and education, but once men realized the great teachings the Bible possessed, there was nothing that could stop the truth from coming out. Some might say that the Reformation began many decades before Martin Luther lived but the thing is that none of them had so permanently influenced the world as he did. He was born in Eisleben in 1483 to a middle-class family. All through his life, he tried to live according to the churchs teachings but it seemed like nothing was sufficient to save him from eternal judgment. He tried to do everything in his

Thursday, March 5, 2020

New Negro Essays

New Negro Essays New Negro Essay New Negro Essay Essay Topic: The New Negro Blacks thought there was hope through art. The Harlem Renaissance was the most artistic period in African-American history. Since the abolition of slavery, great social and cultural transformations were taking place and the Harlem Renaissance reflects that change. Now that they had freedom to express themselves on their own terms, African-Americans began to explore their own culture and celebrate it through their artistic and intellectual means. Langston Hughes in â€Å"When the Negro was in vogue† and Rudolph Fisher in â€Å"The Caucasian storms Harlem† manage to rise well above mere written entertainment by offering practical social challenges. No reader is left without a public dilemma to personally ponder. Both essays share the same goal of getting people to think and act seriously when it2 comes to social and civil issues. Using tones ranging from anger and solemnity to shock and outright jest, these authors seek to alter the status quo by persuading readers to thoughtfully approach the problems presented. In his essay, Langston Hughes reminisces about the Harlem Renaissance. He says that white interest and patronage of black clubs and artists was not appreciated by most Blacks. It causes Blacks to alter their art to please the Whites. Some thought that this new interest in Black culture would lead to tolerance, but it didn’t. In fact, Hughes says it had very little impact on the lives of regular people: â€Å"The ordinary Negroes hadn’t heard of the Negro Renaissance. And if they had, it hadn’t raised their wages any. † Rudolph Fisher speaks about the manner in which the Harlem Renaissance operated in the same way. A huge dynamic of the movement was in how it was received by white America. Whites were fascinated by the culture and society that they found so separate from themselves. They would venture to Harlem at night to get a taste of something â€Å"exotic†. It is the first time in American history where attention and admiration was given to anything African-American. Unfortunately, this fascination displaced the original clientele who became uncomfortable with all the attention. He says: â€Å"The managers don’t hesitate to say that it is upon these predominant white patrons that they depend for success. These places therefore are no longer mine but theirs. † A similarity to notice is that each author is alerting the readers about the progress made by the African- American artists of the time. It is a period of great achievement in theatre (Katharine Cornell, Margaret Wicherly, Leslie Carter), music (Gladys Bentley, Roland Hayes) and literature. Now that they have the freedom to express themselves on their own terms African-Americans began to explore their own culture and celebrate it through their artistic and intellectual means. I think that even though the Blacks took the interest in their entertainment as a form of exploitation of their talents they also gained from their spotlight and used it to the best of their advantage. This was progress on the road towards acceptance and race equality.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

MAPS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

MAPS - Essay Example The organisation secured a substantial new contract that can create 850 new jobs in the next two years but has to live up to the avowed standard of customer service. The company specializing in management services to businesses and the general public has a turnover of 40 million and employs a staff of 1400 (fifteen years ago the company employed 3500 people) in 4 divisions in different locations in the North East of England. The special techniques and management systems the company developed made it an attractive 'outsourcing' destination for business services from a broad customer base including engineering and construction industries. Increasing operational costs and the advent of information technology altered the business scenario and dwindled contracts. In order to ward off staff lay offs, the company opened its services to the general public. The services include the contract purchase of telecommunications time, gas, electricity and oil sold at a premium. However the business remained unprofitable and the company had to continually discharge staff in spite of many re-structuring activities. 2.1 MAPS' human resource management: Human resource development according to Armstrong (2003 523) is "concerned with the provision of learning, development and training opportunities in order to improve individual, team and organisational performance." One of the axioms of huma... Training employees to develop necessary skills Evaluating, motivating and rewarding performance Resolving or avoiding conflict situations Creating an atmosphere of security (psychological contract) and equitable opportunities A properly implemented human resource management system ensures attracting and retaining the right talent, motivating the workforce, developing workforce skills and resolving or avoiding conflict situations to achieve organisational goals cost effectively. Marchington et al. describe the best HRM practices as: Employment security and internal promotion Selective hiring and sophisticated selection Extensive training, learning and development Employee involvement and voice Self-managed teams/teamworking High compensation contingent or organisational performance Reduction of status differentials/harmonisation (2003 179) 2.2 Selection and recruitment: The absence of an HRM department at MAPS is stark. The company has no rational organisational structure. It has four divisions: operations, supporting services, (which lumps together finance and accounts, estates management like maintenance, security, porters and catering, internal information technology and personnel services), information technology services and marketing and sales. These divisions are located in different parts of the country making intra-divisional co-ordination very difficult. Each division has devised its own system for recruiting, negotiating pay structures and staffing. The largest and most important of the divisions viz., 'operations' employing a staff of 950 has the most ad hoc recruitment policies. Operational managers recruit staff either from within the organisation or without, based on the exigencies of work. The

Monday, February 3, 2020

Visitor management (Heritage sites) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Visitor management (Heritage sites) - Essay Example tions are majorly designed with strategic tools and approaches to improve visitors’ experience within a particular heritage tourism site (Shackley, 2009). The primary objective of this study is to develop a critical understanding about the different types of strategic processes of managing visitors in global cultural heritage sites. In this regard, the essay tends to identify the strategic directions as well as different managing and controlling tools or approaches used by the organisations or managing committees to offer exceptional visiting experience to each group or individual customers in the heritage sites. In relation to the modern competitive scenario in the tourism business industry, the process of managing visitors especially in the heritage sites ranges from cultural to urban destinations. According to the recent visitation and conservation strategies of the global destinations, there are numerous objectives to why the process of visitor management has been recognising as an increasingly important area to be undertaken by the groups responsible to manage visitors in the heritage sites. World Heritage Sites (WHS) conserve an Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) with adequate authenticity and integrity that grasp the attention of the visitors irrespective of their geographical locations. Therefore, the WHS can be widely accepted as a core and the most valuable drivers in the tourism industry to generate major financial contribution in the global economy. In this regard, the key purpose of the management departments in the WHS is to ensure that the nominated properties are effectively p rotected for bringing major economic and socio-cultural development on the present and the future generation (Leask & Fyall, 2006). In relation to the recent changes in the pace of globalisation, an effective management of the WHS includes a strong cyclic process with long-term and day-to-day activities with the aim of protecting and conserving wellness of the nominated

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Glaxo Smith Kline Pakistan Limited Commerce Essay

Glaxo Smith Kline Pakistan Limited Commerce Essay GSK Pakistan Limited was created on January 1st 2000 through the merger of SmithKline Beecham Pakistan and Glaxo Wellcome Pakistan and it stands as the largest pharmaceutical company in Pakistan today. GSK leads the industry in value, volume and prescription market shares. Some of their key brands include Augmentin, Panadol, Seretide, Betnovate, Zantac and Calpol in medicine and renowned consumer healthcare brands include Horlicks, Aquafresh, Macleans and ENO. GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) is one of the Pakistans largest research-based pharmaceutical corporations that discovers, develops, manufactures and markets branded human health products. GSK has two main business divisions, pharmaceuticals and consumer healthcare. This profile deals with the pharmaceuticals division, which generates 85% of GSKs sales. GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) is also Pakistans leading research-based pharmaceutical company with a powerful combination of skills and resources that provides a platform for delivering strong growth in todays rapidly changing healthcare environment. GSK also has leadership in four major therapeutic areas anti-invectives, central nervous system (CNS), respiratory and gastro-intestinal/metabolic. Company produce medicines that treat six major disease areas asthma, virus control, infections, mental health, diabetes and digestive conditions. In addition, GSK is a leader in the important area of vaccines and are developing new treatments for cancer and has a growing portfolio of oncology products. The company also has a Consumer Healthcare portfolio comprising over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, oral care products and nutritional healthcare drinks, all of which are among the market leaders. GSK is primarily focused on the development, production and distribution of its own products. GSK is an important contributor to the national skills pool in areas of chemical and pharmaceutical research, manufacturing, management practice and sales marketing. FACTORY LOCATIONS: Registered Office: 1. GlaxoSmithKline Pakistan Limited 35-Dockyard, West Wharf, Karachi -74000. Telephones: 92-21-2315478-82 Fax: 92-21-2313632 Other Offices: 1. GlaxoSmithKline Pakistan Limited F-268, S.I.T.E., Near Labour Square, Karachi-75700 Telephones: 92-21-2570665-69 Fax: 92-21-2572613 2. GlaxoSmithKline Pakistan Limited 18.5 km, Ferozepur Road, P.O. Box No. 244, Lahore Telephones: 5811931-35 Fax: 5820821 GSKS FINANCIAL DATA: Five Years Sales YEARS SALES (rupees in billions) 2002 6.9 2003 8.1 2004 8.8 2005 9.4 (Growth by 6.2%) 2006 10.1 (Growth by 7.1%) GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF SALES (in millions) Companys Five Years Profit YEARS PROFIT (rupees in billions) 2002 0.54 2003 1.02 2004 1.47 2005 1.81 (Growth by 23.3%) 2006 1.66 (Decrease by 8.2%) GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF PROFIT (in millions) Revenue breakup Benchmarking Ratio Name WYETH SEARLE ABBOTT GSK Current Ratio 4.10 1.714 4.76 4.4 Inventory Turnover 1.69 times 10.11 times 4.69 times 3.0 times Total Asset Turnover 60% 10.2% 1.17 times 1.1 times Profit Margin on Sales 0.182 0.032 0.17 0.16 Earnings Per Share 112 3.53 10.21 12.2 Return on Assets 10.9 3.2 19.9 21.5 CORE VALUE OF GSK GSKs value is based on its research strength linked to production marketing. The core of value creation is from the inventories of new chemical entities and it captures value through a high intensive sales and marketing process. Essential to the overall value proposition is the synergy of RD, production and commercial activities. GSK has been committed to its social and health related activities. Good Corporate Citizen is core value of GSK. Core values of GSKs can be summed up as a belief in performance with integrity, coupled with entrepreneurial spirit, focus on innovation, a sense of urgency and a passion for achievement. GSK are working to ensure the culture guides and informs everything they do by adhering to these core principles, they seek to create a climate in which the best people can always achieve to their full potential, and in turn help millions of people live longer, healthier and happier lives. NEW CHEMICAL INVENTROIES Production and commercial activities Synergy of RD GSK High intensive sales . Core Competencies of GSK : GSK has the core competencies in genetics, to enable them to integrate genetics effectively and responsibly into their current practice. Competency in these areas represents the minimum knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for health professionals from all disciplines (medicine, nursing, allied health, public health, dentistry, psychology, social work, etc.) to provide patient care that involves awareness of genetic issues and concerns. BUSINESS PROFILE GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) is one of the Pakistans largest research-based pharmaceutical companies that that discovers, develops, manufactures and markets human health products. It is an innovative company that produces branded products only, which it has developed itself. The company has two main divisions, pharmaceuticals and consumer healthcare. The consumer healthcare businesses of GSK consist of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, oral care products, such as the toothpaste brands Aqua fresh, MacLeans and Sensodyne, and nutritional healthcare drinks. The pharmaceuticals division is the largest part of GSKs businesses and can be divided into prescription drugs and vaccines. The headquarters of GSK are located in the UK. The company operates in some 160 national markets. GSK conducts RD at more than 20 sites and employs 15,000 employees in RD. GSK is involved in many different RD partnerships with academic institutions, biotechnology companies and other pharmaceutical companies. The compa ny has a leading position in genetics and in new drug discovery technologies. BUSINESS PROFILE Pharmaceuticals Consumer healthcare Vaccines Prescription drugs Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines Oral care products Nutritional healthcare drinks Viral Vaccination Toothpaste Bacterial Macleans Aqua fresh Heart disease Infection Skin condition Sensodyne BUSINESS STRATEGY: GSKs business goal is to be a world leader in pharmaceutical industry. In order to achieve this, the company seeks to improve its RD pipeline, using a focused drug portfolio strategy and selective in-licensing agreements for the external contracting of RD. The company links RD closely to commercial operations to maximize the value of its RD portfolio. Furthermore, GSK seeks to increase brand name recognition among customers and to develop improved versions of older products, on which new patents can be obtained. It is a common strategy of branded drug producers to develop improved versions or more convenient formulations of drugs on which the patents have expired, and to persuade doctors and patients to use the enhanced version. Business strategy Being best place for best people to do their best work Optimising the performance of key products Delivering the product pipeline for patients Improving access to medicines Supply Chain of GSK Supply Chain Management according to GSK, is a process for ensuring continuity of supply through the rapid identification of actual and potential supply chain issues enabling pro-active management and the prevention of low and out of stock situations. SUPPLY CHAIN MISSION OF GSK: GSKs Supply Chain mission is to construct, harmonize and improve quality of all the product and go with the intend of satisfying the chain of suppliers suppliers and customers customers by providing right product, at the right time, in the right quantity, to the right place and becoming highly recognized by our employees, customers and shareholders and abiding by Government laws and regulations GSKs Objective of Supply Chain Issue Management à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ To prevent low and out of stock situations occurring. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Pro-actively identify any potential supply chain issues with the purpose of preventing low stocks and stock outs occurring. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Resolve supply chain issues, at a local level where possible, excepting issue types categorized for immediate escalation. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Provide a fast and effective mechanism for escalation where issues cannot be resolved at local level. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Enable delivery of root cause analysis complete with follow up action to ensure the causes of actual and potential low stocks and stock outs are understood. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ To have one information source for all supply chain issues. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ To have global visibility of all supply chain issues. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ To enable rapid tactical response to commercial opportunities Supply Chain Integration P R O D U C T F L O W sales force activity (SFA) Transportation Supplier factory Warehouse Manufacturing Sales stations/Warehouse Customer Pharmacies Distributors I N F O R M A T I O N F L O W GSKs Supply Chain Structure Mr. Ahmad Jamal Qudsi (Commercial) Distribution Manager DISTRIBUTION MANAGER MASTER SCHEDULER MASTER SCHEDULER CAPAPCITY PLANNER PRODUCTION PLANNER PRODUCTION PLANNER Mr. Sajjad Zahid Shaikh (GMS) Manager Procurement, Shipping, Contracts, Regulatory affairs. PROCUREMENT MANAGER Exports mANAGER Local/ IMPORTED PURCHASE mANAGER Warehouse mANAGER Mr. Obaid (GMS) Purchase Manager b-65 F-268 w.w LHR Sales Force Activity ( Demand Generated)Supply Chain Process Manufacturing Planning (Demand Generated) Procurement Planning Vendors (Quotations asked) LC Follow up import dispatches Clearance Transit Time Material in Warehouse Material Available For Production Production Released by LTR FO Batches Packing line FO Quarantine Central Depots Dispatches Institutions Lab Test Results (LTR) Satellite Depots Distribution Wholesalers Retailers GSKs Global Manufacturing Supply Procedure GMS site disposals will be co-ordinated within a consistent process alongside communication plans. A consistent process will enable GMS in meeting the business case objectives. The process proposed will generally recommend decisions to the CET based on a balance between: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Realising the synergy benefits from transferring production à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Maximising sale proceeds à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Minimising local labour redundancy à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Ongoing supply security à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Managing political and other local sensitivities Key features of the site disposal process are: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ It is GMS-managed with involvement of key stakeholders at the sites and in Legal Entities à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ External contracted assistance will enable global marketing of the sites A phased and co-ordinated approach: Phase 1 preparation Phase 2 search Phase 3 negotiation The Escalation Process Step 1:Daily (regular) The regular dialogue between Demand and Supply managers is the foundation of SCIM. SCIM is only invoked when the agreed supply plan cannot be achieved and a resolution cannot be found by the demand and supply managers. Low stock and out of stock events are entered into the SOLS system or generated automatically. Demand and Supply Managers discuss entered events as appropriate. Supply Managers make proposals to resolve the event. Demand managers read proposals and agree by accepting the suppliers response to events with the customer satisfaction flag as a default value of yes or disagree and move the flag to no. If no is selected then commentary may be entered into the escalation field. This enables a report to be run selecting any items marked for escalation. Demand and Supply Mangers proactively view trends, and any issues which might potentially impact the supply of product. Step 2: Wednesday The Supply Manager prepares for the PCM. Reports are available from SOLS and other supporting computer systems identifying all issues. In particular, the SCIM report from the Data Warehouse. This is to be run for All Issues (in SOLS issues are referred to as events). The Supply Manager cuts his report in preparation for the PCM at the latest this is done on the Thursday morning. Step 3: Thursday The PCM is held. At sites of supply the PCM review all Low Stocks, Out of Stocks and any issues and their potential impact on the sites ability to supply. Where no resolution to actual and potential issues is found then the Supply Manager invokes the escalation procedure with the ALM or equivalent. N.B. Issues can be escalated by either the Demand Manager or the Supply Manager Step 4 Thursday/Friday The ALM (or equivalent) is brought in by either the Demand or Supply Manager to help resolve the issue identified. The ALM (or equivalent) runs the SCIM report from the Data Warehouse filtering on Unresolved Issues. If resolution can still not be made then the ALM progresses the issue with the Regional Logistics Director (RLD). RLD chair conference call with ALMs (or equivalent) and any guest Demand or Supply Managers required. RLD compiles consolidated market view for region of issues. RLD tries to find network solutions to supply issues. RLD flags unresolved issues as critical issues in SOLS. Step 5 Monday The Area Logistics Managers / Directors are brought into the discussions to assist resolution if necessary especially where a potential stock rationing situation might occur. VP of Global Logistics (VPGL) runs the SCIM report from the Data Warehouse filtering on Critical Issues. VPGL chairs conference call with RLDs and any guest ALMs, Demand or Supply Managers required. VP compiles consolidated market impact for issues. VPGL flags any unresolved critical issues as exceptional in SOLS. VPGL makes decision escalate critical issues and engage commercial and manufacturing executives. Step 6 Tuesday Formal review by RSDs, Vice-President Global Logistics, Senior Vice President Global Logistics and Strategy and any other appropriate senior manager. The SCIM report is run from the Data Warehouse filtering on Exceptional Issues. An output from this meeting (or teleconference) can be the establishment of a virtual team to resolve the issue. It will exist until the issue is resolved and is lead by the ALM (or equivalent) supported by the RLD. Where stock rationing is required the RLD will trigger the Rationing process VPGL reports on the commercial impact of exceptional issues. The RLD assumes overall responsibility for resolution of the exceptional issue. Supply Chain Process: Supply Chain Issue Management (SCIM) is a process for ensuring continuity of supply through the rapid identification of actual and potential supply chain issues enabling pro-active management and the prevention of low and out of stock situations and regular communication occurs between demand and supply managers. The process is driven from bottom up rather than top down. Issues are to be resolved at the lowest level. Trending analysis is to be done by the Supply Managers. The process is two way between demand and supply. Both supply performance and forecast accuracy are to be reviewed. SCORE MODEL P L A N N I N G BUYING USING STORE SELLING RM Manufacturer Make Deliver Source Make Deliver Make Source Deliver Source Deliver Source Plan Indenters GSK, Pakistan Distributors Return Return Return Return Return Return Supplier Suppliers Supplier Company Customer Whole salers Customers Customer PLANNING: Planning in GSK, Pakistan, is done by the demand function unit of the finance department. Below is a general diagram which shows how the planning takes place: The Process: The process starts with the doctors which prescribes medicines to the patients. The patients then ask for the drugs from the chemist which is basically a retailer. From retailer an order is then passed on to the distributor which then simultaneously ask for the drugs from the company. Now the daily data on sales is sent to the SMART Department of GSK which uploads the information in the database. Finally the queries and reports which are generated by the SMART Software help the Demand Managers, in the finance department, to predict the future demand for the specific drug. SMART Software basically creates the trend which help managers see the rise and fall in a drugs demands over the years. This helps them to accurately tell the procurement managers the demand required for the raw materials to be purchased for a specific drug. BUSINESS PLANNING: The corporate executive team of GSK does strategic planning on every last day of week which is co-ordinate within a consistent process alongside communication plans. The process proposed will generally recommend decisions to the CET based on a balance between realizing the synergy benefits from transferring production, Maximizing sale proceeds, Ongoing supply security. Corporate executive team (CET) Meeting Finance Department Discuss CET VP, Planning Sourcing Negotiation CET approval Corporate executive team . DEMAND FORCAST: As mentioned above the demand in GSK is forecasted by the Demand Function Unit of Finance Department. Finance department provides 24 months rolling aggregate demand forecast, which is known as ADS (Approved Demand Statement). This statement shows individual demands for all product lines demanded by end users. The softwares used by the finance department to predicts demands are BIPEX (also known as BPCS) and JD-Edwards. On the demand side markets review their sales plans on a regular basis (at least monthly depending on size of market) and feed into the supply sites Production control Meetings through the Supply Managers UNPLANNED DEMAND Unplanned demand is a demand, which comes unexpectedly Like at the time of War, NATURAL DISASTERS OR ANY EPIDEMICS According to GSK, they have a policy to maintain four weeks safety stock to handle the uncertainties. Stock, in the three categories, intended to maintain supply continuity resulting from a significant event that is unplanned. Top 20 Products (as defined by GSK annual sales, Pharma/Consumer Healthcare) Medically Critical and Access to Medicines products New Chemical Entities (NCEs), including Product Line Extensions (PLEs) SUPPLY STRUCTURE: Supply Issues (potential and actual) are reviewed formally each week. At the supply sites this is done at the weekly Production Control Meeting. Supply Issues are managed on a daily basis but the formal weekly meeting brings all aspects of supply and demand together for review; it adds a framework. Then after the supply plan has been made it is forwarded it to the Procurement Department. Master Production Schedule The entire production is based on this plan weather it is Tablet, syrup, or injectables manufacturing. This is set up on the bases of forecasted and some times unplanned demand as well. Date for all the batches is set up according to this plan but when there is a sense of urgency then there are some changes made. The figure below shows this process is generated: Master Production Arrival This is the inventory, which is going to arrive in bulk, and it is the job of Master Production Scheduler to arrange the bulk. This bulk can either be for export or for the market demand done through forecast. He also sets up when to make the required batch on which date. STOCK MANAGEMENT: GSK used inventory management system First in First out (FIFO). Inventory management (FIFO) of strategic stock to ensure proper rotation and reduce the potential of data used. Items at stock keeping unit level where, based on the forward sales forecast/ sales orders, the level of inventory is predicted to fall below 50% of the agreed safety stock within the next 90 days. SAFETY STOCK: GSK stores stock in ware houses for maximum flexibility of supply purpose. The stock is taken into account within 1 month of time. Material Management Planning: GSK, Pakistan is using BIPEX (also known as BPCS) to effectively and efficiently handle the Material issues. All transactions are made electronically into BPCS known as Business Planning Control System. If there is an additional requirement due to abnormal demand then there are some changes made in MRP. Capacity Planning Capacity means a measured ability to accomplish work. Capacity planning is a process in which capacity is planned based upon expected demand and it needs to be balanced with required capacity utilization and it also outlines the capacity requirements for the production, availability of machines and what are the standard hours, which they are required to meet the forecasted demand. And to manage the capacity control process GSK Pakistan is using 2 systems known as JD-Edwards and BIPEX which is also called as Business Process Control System (BPCS). SUPPLY CHAIN CONFIGURATION: Supply chain manager act upon the process enabling pro-active management of potential and actual supply issues in order that the impact on lost sales is minimized. Supply chain manager resolve supply chain issues, at a local level. The Supply Manager prepares for the PCM. Reports are available from SOLS and other supporting computer systems identifying all issues. In particular, the SCIM report from the Data Warehouse. . MAKE OR BUY DECISION: GSK Pakistan is currently importing 72 drugs, which includes all its vaccines and expensive oncology medicines such as Hycamtin. The reason why GSK imports these products are because there manufacturing is very expensive and Pakistan is not self sufficient in the raw materials which are required to make these products. Infact the climate of Pakistan makes it very hard for GSK to manufacture vaccines here. Thus all its vaccines are imported from Belgium. Also, these products cater to a very small market segment and manufacturing them here would not be profitable. SOURCING: Gsk Medicines contain active ingredients. They also contain other, additional ingredients called Excipients that help ensure the stability, safety and effectiveness of the medicine. They are also added to improve the medicines taste and appearance and to make it easier to take. Some may be used to prolong the life of the medicine Pharmaceutical ingredients include both synthetic chemical substances as well as material with biological orgin. Various control methods with chemical, microscopic and microbiological testing is covered during the course. In addition, the different national and international quality control regulations for pharmaceutical ingredients are taught. SOURCING PROCESS The Weekly Process At the day-to-day level the Demand and Supply Managers are engaged in managing the fulfillment of the order book, ensuring forecasts are kept up to date, handling any un-forecasted (abnormal) demand, and resolving any issues. This is normal daily activity. Any issues arising must be discussed with the objective of resolving at local level. Issues can come from either the Demand or the Supply side. The Stock Out and Low Stock (SOLS) Data Warehouse system is the main vehicle for recording and reporting issues and actions taken between Demand and Supply Managers. It is used as a formal means of identifying and tracking issues and the actions taken to resolve them. It is a dialogue application for use by the Demand and Supply Managers. Demand nodes will accept the proposals or escalate through the hierarchy. Data can be manually entered into SOLS. Supply sites must respond to recorded stock-out and low stock events according to SCIM time table PROCUREMENT GSK has an extremely large procurement organization largely left over from the 2001 merger between Glaxo Welcome and SmithKline Beecham. The purchasing group set a goal of developing what it called best value purchasing strategies, ensuring that GSK is getting the best possible price and cost for everything it buys. That means negotiating the best prices and making sure those contracts are adhered to. GSK has two types of purchases i.e. local purchases and foreign purchases PURCHASES LOCAL PURCHASES FOREIGN PURCHASES Raw Packing Material Group purchases Non Group purchases (party purchases) ) NIP (non inventory purchases) PROCESS FLOW FOR PURCHASE PR incorporated in:Incorporated By:Against Requisition of:BIPEXPPICPurchasesJD EdwardsConcern dept.NIPPurchase of inventory is approved through Firm Plan Order (FPO) by Purchase Planning and Inventory Control Dept (PPIC) and incorporates in system N.I.P. Concern department generate approved Purchase Receipt. Procurement Department (P.D.) received signed copy of FPO by PPIC and PR for N.I.P. Type of PurchasePURCHASE FLOW OF PRODUCT A FOREIGN PURCHJASES LOCAL PURCHASES Purchases Raw Material Packing Material N.I.P. Fixed Assets Consumable items Quotation calling Selection of Supplier through Quotation Evaluation Form Placement of Purchase Order (PO) by P.D. Information in PO: Supplier name Delivery schedule Quantity Required Rate (as decided with supplier) A SUPPLY of GOODS: Nature of MaterialMaterial Supplied at:PurchasesStores.NIPConcern Dept. 3way check: Invoice WITH P.R. P.O. by Commercial Finance Issuance of INVOICE by Supplier. Information in invoice: Delivery Challan #. P.O.# Recording of Liability depends on LTR. DOCUMENTS ISSUED BY DEPT.AFTER RECEIPT of MATERIAL from SUPPLIER Supply of:Documents IssuedBYTOPurchasesReceivers Ticket.(RT) Delivery Challan.Stores Dept.Quality Control (QC) Dept.NIPMaterial Receipt Note (MRN)Concern Dept.Incorporated in System. Lab Test Report (LTR) Incorporation of approved lots in BIPEX by QC Up to the Quality Accounts Dept. runs an auto report identify NEW LTRs Entries made by Accounts Dept. for new LTRs: DebitCreditENTRY for NEW LTRStock (@Standard rate)xxxPurchases Price Variance (PPV)-GSTxxx PPV- Other than GSTxxx Provision for purchases(actual payable amount)xxx PPV variance (with the Diff.) Fav/ (Un-Fav)xxxxxxPurchases (actual payable amount)xxx Purchases ContraxxxENTRY for NEW INVOICE (after approval of QC)Provision for Purchasesxxx Vendor Control A/Cxxx B Entries made by Accounts Dept. for new MRN: DebitCreditENTRY for NEW MRNExpense A/C (NIP)xxx NIP Commitment A/C xxx ENTRY for NEW INVOICE NIP Commitment A/C xxx Vendor Control A/Cxxx Payment to VENDOR Entries made by Accounts Dept. at Payment Stage DebitCreditVendor Control A/Cxxx Bankxxx Tax Liabilityxxx Raw Material Packing Material Purchase FROM Quotation Calling 3RD PARTY Selection of Supplier Raw Material Finished Goods GROUP Prices are already decided between GlaxoSmithKline Pakistan Limited Group Companies. Placement of Purchase Order (PO) by PD they incorporates PO, in BIPEX. Receives PERFORMA INVOICE (an agreement to sell) by Supplier. Type of L/C Opening of Letter of Credit (L/C) with Bank. Information in L/C: L/C #. Mode of transportation. Type of L/C. (Usance / Sight) Receipt of Shipment Schedule (SS), Suppliers Invoice Bill of Lading [B/L] (Negotiable Non-Negotiable Copy). Information in SS: Date of Shipment. Type of freight paid. At usage at sight C Submission of Negotiable Copy of B/L to Shipping Co. Submission of Non- Negotiable Copy of B/L to Ministry of Health for Approval of Material (as required under Drugs Act). Delivery Order (Delivery Challan) receives from Shipping Co. Submission to Custom for Clearance of Shipment. Receipt of SHIPMENT Certificate of Approval for Material by Ministry of Health alongwith exemption certificate (if any). LTR Up to the Quality Receipt of Agents Bill Testing of Shipment by QC Materials Average Lead Time GSK Pakistan only uses air freight to acquire imported materials and its lead time is approximately 120 days. Note that when materials arrive they also take clearance time which is about 4-5 days for air freight

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Defeat in The Old Man and the Sea Essay

â€Å"As human beings, our greatest glory consists not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall.† To achieve a goal in life, man must persevere through all pain and suffering and continue to search for the light at the end of the dark tunnel. The journey of The Old Man and the Sea describes struggle and the will to discipline oneself to achieve an aspiration. An old fisherman, Santiago, is faced with exactly that; he has a dream of ending an eighty-four day streak without catching a fish and has to use all of his will power to overcome the sea’s obstacles. Because Santiago successfully catches the great marlin by fighting through physical fatigue, Hemmingway, in The Old Man and the Sea, proves â€Å"a man can be destroyed but not defeated.† In the prolonged struggle between the fish and the old man his conscience questioned his justifications for battling such a great creature. Always in the back of his mind was the young boy who he valued for friendship and companionship. These ideals helped Santiago remember his discipline for fishing and his integrity for his own manhood. The pain and suffering the old man must endure to overcome the sea’s adversity help to justify Santiago’s rebirth of manhood. His legendary journey provides mental and physical altercations Santiago must survive in order to prove to himself that he is still a man capable of catching fish. Society labels Santiago as an unlucky fisherman for not catching any fish for 85 days, and yet ignore his skills as a wise, witty fisherman. â€Å"It is better to be lucky. But I would rather be exact. Then when luck comes you are ready.†(32) Santiago coordinates good luck with offerings from the sea. He also said, in order to catch the big fish I must go out far enough where the great one will be distracting death for his own adversity with the open sea. He almost distains fate into his situation with the fish by taking all the pain and suffering his body endures to complete his desires. â€Å"He did not truly feel good because the pain from the cord across his back had almost passed pain and into dullness that he mistrusted.†(74) Once both the fish and Santiago had reached the breaking point of conflict the story seemed to slow down in time to exemplify the adverse conditions that both characters were suffering from. For eighty-four days, the old man, Santiago, has not caught any fish. Because of this, the old man’s fishing partner and pupil, Manolin, whom the old man loved like his own son and taught since he was five, has not been permitted to fish with him but has been forced by his parents to fish in a more productive boat. On the eighty-fifth day Santiago sets out to the deep recesses of the sea, certain that this would be the day when he would catch his big fish. He eventually does catch a marlin, but the struggle has only begun. For two days Santiago holds the line that is attached to the fish, and he suffers though tremendous obstacles to kill the great marlin. After harpooning the fish, he straps the marlin against the skiff and heads for home, doubting if the victory was real. The obstacles, however, were not yet over. The blood drawn from the fish brought the scent into the water, and it was not long until a mako shark began to take its bite out of the marlin. In protection of his fish, Santiago hit the shark with the harpoon. With the mako dead, shovel-nosed sharks came to the fish to get their chance to devour it. Bravely, Santiago fights with all the weapons he has, thus causing him great physical pain, and an injury to his chest. Despite his courageous fight, it is to no avail for when he arrives at his town only the carcass is left The old man proves himself worthy of personal suffering with the cuts and scars on his hands and back along with all of the pulling and slipping the cords had upon his fragile body. Hemmingway shows in a big way how an out of proportioned conflict with an old fisherman and an 18 foot long marlin helps to magnify the significance of Santiago searching for his rebirth to manhood. With constant abstraction describing the fish and the sea in relation to brotherhood create interesting questions for Santiago to ponder. His rationalization for his fishing is that he was born to do it. â€Å"A man can be destroyed but not defeated.† (103) Hemmingway proves that this fish represents all of Santiago’s built up tension to total the size of a gigantic marlin that is perceived as devastating but not unconquerable. The cause of a man’s destruction is in his own hands. The free will given to man enables him choose his own path to follow. The twist and turns of the life can change man’s perception of himself, leading him only to self-destruct through his own actions. By losing, the man is not defeated; he has fallen to the ground. Is this his end, his defeat? No. Because, man is given a light that lifts up spirits in a time of need picking them up off the cold, hard earth to try once more. No matter, the depths of destruction in which a man may find himself, the light never goes out. Despite being broken down to what feels to be his destruction, the light allows him to rebuild, never being entirely defeated.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Summary Guide of Crime and Punishment

Lesson 1: 1. Raskolnikov lives under the roof directly above his landlady in a small, tight garret surrounded by dusty yellow wallpaper and with nothing but a â€Å"clumsy† couch, an unlevel table with three unpainted chairs, and a few books covered in dust from abandonment. The area where he resides in could be described as the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum. The inhabitants include drunkards, prostitutes, and tradesman. 2. Environmental factors such as these breed a despondent outlook on life and a reticent behavior that only sink one’s mind. 3.Raskolnikov possesses two opposing sides of his personality; the compassionate and the selfish. His compassionate side led him to leave money for Marmeladov’s family and lead him to care about the young drunk woman that he tried to save from a rapist. However, his more selfish side caused him to reprimand himself for â€Å"wasting† money on the Marmeladovs and on the drunken stranger. Both aspects of himself create an inner struggle that will most likely continue throughout the story. 4. Marmeladov can be described as in his early fifties, average height, solid build and sparsely balding. Similar article: On Compassion AnalysisHis wife Katherine Ivanovna possesses a delicate, proportionate, slim, tall body at the age of thirty, she still retains brown color in her hair, and her cheeks have red stains from the disease she has. From her previous marriage she gave birth to three children a little boy and two girls. Her oldest child has the age of nine and appears tall and thin. The little boy, the middle child, has just the description of a year older than the youngest child who is six. Marmeladov‘s only child Sonia has the description of in her teenage years.5.I believe others should take pity on Marmeladov instead of despising him because he has shown regret and condemns himself. His character proved weak when he could not keep himself from his drinking problem. He feels remorse from taking his family’s only money to spend it on himself for a selfish reason but his action in returning home to face reproach from his wife gives a feeling of pity.6. Although I understand Katerina Ivanovna’s anxiety I do not sympathize with her. I do not think I would react the way she has. My reaction would focus on finding a job or another means of income. Her actions benefit no one and for that I cannot sympathize.7. Yes, Katerina’s background makes her present situation much more tragic because she had never experienced such hardships before. If she had grown in a humble environment she would have felt a lesser loss and she would have accepted her life a lot more easily.8. In Dostoyevsky’s novel the pawnbroker falls under unsympathetic terms.9. Raskolnikov appears as physically attractive with his dark eyes, blond hair, above average height and well built body though with the exception of his garb.10.Raskolnikov and the pawnbroker have ironic descriptions because the two contradict each other; the pawnbroker has richness while Raskolnikov needs money. Even their descriptions oppose each other one being young and attractive and th e other aged though both dress similarly.11. The character’s actions determine whether they become likeable or not.12. From her actions Sonia can be described as likeable because she sacrificed her virginity for persons she was not related to by blood. Moreover, she continues to give them money aside from leaving her home to keep them safe. Her altruism shows only her benevolent character.13. Mr.Luzhin appears to be likeable from his visits to Dounia. And based on the mother’s letter he seems a sensible man by the way he has handled the situation. His accepting of the possibility in giving Raskolnikov a job and helping Duonia and her mother with their luggage shipping. But nevertheless not enough events have occurred to categorize Mr. Luzhin definitely. 14. Raskolnikov opposes Dounia’s proposed marriage because he believes his sister will marry to save him from his economical situation. 15. Raskolnikov loves his family so much that he will not allow his sister t o marry a man in order to improve his living conditions.He, instead, would continue living the way he has to protect his sister. And his writing to his mother also serves to prove his affection. 16. He juxtaposes his sister’s marriage to Sonia’s prostitution because in return for themselves they receive monetary support. 17. I believe the comparison accurate but other even if one will live respectfully and the other will face derision. 18. Marfa Petrovna, in response to Dounia’s rejection letter to her husband Svidrigailov, proceeds to clear Duonia’s name of all infamy as well as personally apologizing. 9. Raskolnikov occupied himself as a law student and a tutor. 20. Because Raskolnikov found no means to support himself he discontinued his studies. 21. The most outstanding character trait is weakness. Raskolnikov does not posse the ability to fight any and every obstacle in order to carry on. 22. After having drank some vodka at a pub Raskolnikov walks t o Petrovsky Island where he begins to feel the effects of the liquor and so he travels a little further to bushes and goes into a stupor. During his stupor Raskolnikov dreams of his childhood.In the dream he pictured his father and himself walking from a cemetery where his grandmother and younger brother rested just outside of their town near an old tavern. While passing by the old tavern a ruckus called Raskolnikov’s attention the commotion was due to a group of drunkards who coming out of the tavern proceeded to climb onto a wagon attached to an old mare to pull. The man named Mikolka wanted to prove to everyone that his mare could pull them and he began to whip the mare for encouragement but when it became clear that the horse could not he inconsiderately beat the animal all the more harshly.Two other men took up the beat as well. At the sight of everything young Raskolnikov attempts to do something for the mare by running to it and it the action receives a blow to his fac e but does not give in not even when a woman tries to lead him away. Meanwhile the owner Mikolka takes out a shaft and strikes four times unable to kill the miserable animal until he finally brings out a crowbar to finish the animals suffering with two more blows. Raskolnikov feels for the defenseless animal so much that he kisses its bloody face and then turns to attack the man that dealt it so much pain but just before he can his father carries him away. 3. The dream symbolizes the act that Raskolnikov has had in mind to commit murder. It foreshadows both the murder and his reaction after he commits the crime. The vivid description of the horrible beating of the mare implies the same fate of the pawnbroker. And the way he acted as a child illustrates the unimaginable grief he will both feel and have to deal with after the act. 24. Raskolnikov overhears Lizaveta and the peddler’s wife talking about their plans for the following day where they will be away at seven leaving th e pawnbroker alone at home.Lesson 2 1. Coincidence plays the role of justification to Raskolnikov’s murders. He believes that because so many coincidences come about that fate wants him to murder the pawnbroker; he sees fate as a motivator. 2. The first ironic remarks in chapter six are said by the student Raskolnikov overhears talking to the police officer. He speaks of a better world without the pawnbroker by reasoning that she does more harm than good and yet what he suggests (to have someone kill her) completely contradicts to a â€Å"better world. As he continues his conversation with the officer he states, â€Å"I am for justice,† however, no fairness exists when he decides from his own judgment that someone should kill the pawnbroker. Within this same conversation the officer, who holds the job to protect the people, agrees with the student when he says the pawnbroker should die. And towards the end of chapter six Raskolnikov expresses his strong conviction in his acts when he says, â€Å"if judgment fails, the devil takes a hand. Dostoyevsky inputs situational irony having his character believe that he still possesses common sense in committing a murder meanwhile the reader of a lucid mind knows otherwise. In the first chapter of the second part Nastasia refers to the torn, blood-stained rags Raskolnikov holds as â€Å"treasures† when she find him sleeping while holding them, little does Nastasia know that the rags hold a heavy burden. 3. From the very moment Raskolnikov began to think of his crime he said he would take great care and use logic throughout his actions but as he commits the crime he finds himself losing his mind.He misses large details like assuming he would take the ax without any problems and leaving the door open. Not only that but Raskolnikov believed that he was predestined to kill Aliona with good reason but to the contrary he had to plan things (the pledge, the needle, the sling, etc. ) and in the end he kil led Lizaveta without any justification. 4. Raskolnikov acts irrational. 5. Raskolnikov loses his ability to conform to time’s movement after the murders of the two women. 6. If one feels guilty sleep provides an outlet. During sleep the body uses the time to recover and to repair itself.Dreams manifest themselves when the mind becomes afflicted so that one can find a way mend the situation. 7. Guilt has the effect of causing irritability, feelings of remorse, depression, anxiety, dejection, and lack of peace. 8. Most people need to unload themselves from their guilt whether by confession, retribution, or punishment. 9. Raskolnikov demonstrates his need for confession and punishment. After he went back into the anteroom while Koch and the heavier man stood outside the door trying to enter Raskolnikov had thoughts to yell from behind the door so that the men would come in and find him.And while at the police station Raskolnikov remains in his seat after he resolved the I. O. U. issue to admit the crime he committed the day before to Nikodim Fomich the police chief. 10. He takes them and at first places them in the wall of his living quarters behind wallpaper but later decides against it and takes his spoils to a courtyard near Voznesensky Prospect to hide under a large stone. 11. Raskolnikov murdered the old pawnbroker with wishes to do well to others and dedicate the money from the crime to the less fortunate.He did want to rob the woman but for a better cause. 12. Raskolnikov suffers as a result of his action because his mind clutters with insecurity and inability to deal with his crime. Dissimilar to the way he had predicted the outcome Raskolnikov cannot live with the guilt of taking two lives and his subconscious begins to haunt him. 13. Guilt can be both constructive and destructive. Guilt can serve as a motive for someone to help others as a way of dealing with the remorse but it can also eat away at a person and in the long term damage a person ps ychologically. 14.Guilt can be healthy when it teaches right from wrong but it escalates to unhealthy once it begins to harm in such a way that the feelings become uncontrollable. 15. Raskolnikov cannot regain control of his thoughts and his behavior at Razumihin’s apartment shows his self-punishment by refusing work and company to alleviate his situation. 16. Raskolnikov goes to Razumihin’s apartment because he had settled on going after he committed the murders and also in search of work. Lesson 3 1. Raskolnikov’s foil Razumihin possesses characteristics like optimism and determination which Raskolnikov lacks when he falls to hard economic pressure.But even though not perfect compared to Luzhin the snobbish proposed brother-in-law Raskolnikov seems a better person the murder put aside. 2. Raskolnikov only shows interest in the murder case of the pawnbroker and her sister. 3. If Raskolnikov had the opportunity to narrate the story then the majority of the story would lack certainty. Though the first person point of view does include further sensory for the reader the storyline would lose an unbiased view of all the other characters. 4. Razumihin’s character possesses qualities such as selfless, friendly, kind, and above all cheerful. 5.Razumihin shows his amity and concern for Raskolnikov by searching for his friend after a fight, by taking care of Raskolnikov when he took ill, by buying his friend new clothes when he needed them, by talking to the landlady about the money due, and by trying to enliven his friend after his illness. 6. Raskolnikov’s delirious ravings reveal his deep repentance and constant suffering for his crime. 7. Razumihin believes that Nikolay did not commit the murders because he thinks the murderer while trying to escape dropped the box of earring inside the room Nikolay and Dmitry painted during the time they left. . Razumihin’s thought process shows his ability to piece information together an d proves he does not follow the crowd. 9. Luzhin acts rather pretentious and displays excessive self-importance. 10. Raskolnikov detests Luzhin from the moment he speaks and treats him briskly so as to make him leave. 11. Dostoevsky portrays Raskolnikov with more sympathy as opposed to Luzhin. 12. Dostoevsky seems to value sincere, sympathetic and benevolent persons. 13. From his book Dostoevsky describes conceited and condescending characters in unflattering lighting. 14.While at the bar with Zametov Raskolnikov fights an inner battle between confessing to his crime and not letting anyone know. He hints at the crime after Zametov sat at his table because the part of himself that wants to tell the truth cannot keep from suffering until then. However, at the conclusion of their conversation Raskolnikov has played with Zametov’s thoughts that he throws away all possibility of accusing Raskolnikov as the murder. 15. Raskolnikov provokes the murder conversation as soon as Zametov approaches him. 16. Based upon his behavior at the bar, Raskolnikov acts like a coward.Often times through his discussion he leads up to a point but never clearly states his thoughts, he tends to play around the topic leading Zametov to a conclusion but in the end changing his goal. He is too afraid to directly confess and instead tries to allow other s to see the reality but at the last moment chooses to run away from the issue. He also likes to seclude him to reflect. He sequesters himself to think out his plans, judgments, and uncertainty. 17. Raskolnikov following the tavern incident with Zametov goes to the pawnbroker’s old apartment. 8. An example of situational irony becomes evident when the doctor comes to aid the injured Marmeladov and instead of helping speeds up his death by having him bled out. And an example of verbal irony presents itself when Raskolnikov hints at murdering the two women to Zometov in order to free himself of all suspicion. Lesson 4: 1. The way Katerina Ivanovna reacts to her husband’s death enlightens her persona; she cares deeply for him or at the very least holds a caring heart when she does not refuse him in her home.Although she alleged she was glad he died her actions betray her because she forces everyone to leave her husband alone so that his death may be respected. Moreover Katerina sends Polia to search for Sonia so that her husband can see her one last time. She cares about her husband but also cannot forget that he has hurt her and her family. 2. Luzhin’s letter reveals his spiteful character. I think he lied and sent his lackey because of the way Raskolnikov treated him. He not only tries to force the family to break from each other but also allows himself an easy escape from the proposal.Also, his report on the scene at Marmeladov’s home seems purposely dishonest probably with the intention of hurting Raskolnikov character in his mother and sister’s eyes. 3. Marmeladov’s at tempted suicide incites feelings inside Raskolnikov that lead him to help the man and his family. Helping the family causes Raskolnikov to feel like he has a purpose and also allows him to amend for his crime. I believe that when Raskolnikov gave Katerina the kopecks for the funeral in his mind he recalled the purpose of killing the pawnbroker. 4. Due to her lifestyle Sonia dresses in an irregular manner.When she appeared at Marmeladov’s home she wore a long gaudy silk dress with a train alongside her bright colored shoes and her ridiculous parasol in addition to her straw hat with a red feather. She has blonde hair and blue eyes and her thin, pale physique describe her as very pretty despite her garb. 5. Dounia and her brother posses like character qualities; they are very proud, intelligent, and headstrong. Lesson 5 1. Sonia’s reaction to the polite behavior of Raskolnikov’s family reveals that she does not value herself as a person because of her lifestyle. 2 . The fifty-year-old newcomer to St.Petersburg lives in a room next to Sonia’s; in Madame Gertrude Karlovna Resslich’s. 3. From a strategic point, the playful manner that Raskolnikov and Razumikhin entered Porfiry’s room proves effective because the atmosphere inside the room lightens to Raskolnikov’s favor so that his nerves do not give him away, the scene also serves to distract Porfiry from interrogating Raskolnikov and strengthen the feelings of Razumikhin toward his friend. 4. Because Porfiry acts in a happy, sociable manner but yet his facial expressions and the manner in which he looks at persons shows a clear contradiction. 5.When Porfiry repeated the words â€Å"ordinary† and â€Å"extraordinary† Raskolnikov became aware that Porfiry wanted to challenge his views and investigate whether he thought he qualified as part of the â€Å"extraordinary† persons exempt from law. 6. Raskolnikov’s main points From his article in the Periodical Review are: â€Å"extraordinary† and â€Å"ordinary† persons exist, the â€Å"extraordinary† can take lives for a worthy cause, and the â€Å"masses† will always punish those who commit murder no matter the reason. 7. The fact that Porfiry read and studied Raskolnikov’s article reveals that he not only suspects Raskolnikov but that he also has a clever mind. . No, Porfiry does not question Raskolnikov in a traditional police manner. 9. Yes, Porfiry acted sarcastically in his discussion about Raskolnikov’s theory. 10. Porfiry does not appear as a formidable opponent at first. 11. Porfiry’s friendly disposition can very likely cause a criminal to mistrust him and act all the more fearful. 12. Porfiry’s lighthearted manner gives way when he asks Raskolnikov whether he thinks himself as an â€Å"extraordinary† man who could take the lives of others for enlightenment. 13. I believe Porfiry categorized Raskolnik ov as a suspect. 14.Razumikhin’s reaction to Porfiry’s question about the painters further describes his character as loyal. 15. Porfiry asks Raskolnikov if he believed in Lazarus rising from the dead to test his beliefs. 16. As he walks home Raskolnikov encounters a stranger who calls him a murder. 17. Raskolnikov begins to believe that his actions were not worthy of his theory because he questions his motives and whether he falls under the â€Å"extraordinary† category. 18. The dream about the old woman reveals his fears of being an average person and not the â€Å"extraordinary† man when the old woman laughs at his inability to kill her. 9. Svidrigailov visits Raskolnikov after his dream. 20. Svidrigailov has treated Marfa Petrovna and others with some form of civility. Although he showed no compassion for Fil’ka he did not act completely uncivil. As for Marfa he stayed with her throughout their marriage even after she gave him his freedom. His treatment of Dounia presented itself as disrespectful but his present actions to save her from Luzhin shows that he is sympathetic. 21. Svidrigailov’s dreams (the apparitions) reveal his grieving for his late wife. 22.Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov seem alike in that they both sick. Raskolnikov from his crime suffers delirium, fainting, and mental anguish and likewise Svidrigailov suffers from ghost visits from his wife and his servant. 23. Svidrigailov and Raskolnikov have differing personalities. Svidrigailov seems calmer and can control his feelings and actions while Raskolnikov cannot and loses his temper often. 24. Svidrigailov offers Raskolnikov ten thousand rubles as a compensation for the unpleasantness he out her though and to lessen the impact of having to break off the engagement with Luzhin.As a skeptic Raskolnikov does not trust this offer. 25. Marfa Petrovna showed her respect for Dounia by leaving three thousand rubles in her will. Lesson 6 1. Luzhin acts polite in his meeting with Raskolnikov and his family. 2. Svidrigailov has caused the suicide of the young deaf girl and of the serf Phillip. 3. I do agree with Luzhin when he says that certain insults cause irreparable harm to relationships. Although not always respected I believe that every relationship has a boundary for protection and not crossing. 4. I agree, Sonia before Luzhin if morality measured.Society would not subordinate Luzhin to Sonia because society would view their class status only. The society would think such an idea outrageous. 5. When rejected by Dounia, Luzhin reminds her of the scandals that tarnished her reputation when Marfa Petrovna threw her out of her home. This action of his behalf discloses him as resentful. 6. Because Luzhin refuses to believe that his relationship with Dounia had come to an end, his character appears not only stubborn but obsessive. 7. Razumihkin proposes a publishing business venture to Raskolnikov. 8.Raskolnikov entrusts Razumihkin with h is family before he goes off. 9. Raskolnikov acts rather cruel to Sonia initially during their interview. 10. Sonia’s religious believes add irony to her character because even though a prostitute she lives with virtues and purity in her soul. 11. Raskolnikov commands Sonia to read the story of Lazarus’ rising from the dead. Sonia shares this story with Raskolnikov as if she shared an epiphany. She adds feeling to the story by her form of reading it. 12. Raskolnikov sees himself and Sonia as parallels because they have both â€Å"transgressed† and ended the life of omeone. 13. The reason why Raskolnikov will ultimately confess his crime to Sonia is because she will not judge him as harshly as the others because she has shame in her actions and the way she lives. 14. Svidrigailov listens to Sonia and Raskolnikov’s conversation on the other side of the wall. 15. Svidrigailov’s knowledge of the crime would give him leverage against Raskolnikov and wit h the upper hand he can ultimately extortion Raskolnikov. 16. Porfiry’s engagement in meaningless small talk before talking about the crime appears intentional.This technique raises Raskolnikov’s suspicion. 17. (From Lesson 7)The repetition of the word capital is ironic because the true meaning of capital refers to an object of monetary value while Sonia though a prostitute is a person and not an object. 18. Porfiry suspect Raskolnikov as the murderer but lacks substantial evidence. Raskolnikov does not know the degree Porfiry considers him as the murderer. 19. Porfiry does not arrest Raskolnikov because he lacks palpable evidence and Nikolay’s confession has surprised him.Also, he chooses to wait for Raskolnikov to make a blunder and cause himself to allow his guilt to manifest. 20. Raskolnikov’s emotional state during the interview is anxious and temperamental. He struggles to understand how much Porfiry knows about him and due to his anxiety makes mist akes by having outbursts that only increase Porfiry’s suspicion. 21. Porfiry possesses control over Raskolnikov. He presses Raskolnikov to his anxious state and only by luck does Raskolnikov manage to dodge his confession. 22. Porfiry knows that Raskolnikov visited the crime scene. 23.Because of Nikolay’s sudden burst into the room and confession to the murder Porfiry’s plans for Raskolnikov’s confession do not succeed. 24. The man hiding behind the door at Porfiry’s office presented himself as the same man that called Raskolnikov a murderer on the street the day before. Ironically the man apologizes when Raskolnikov truly committed the crime and he deserved his plight. Lesson 7 1. Luzhin regrets his lack of generosity toward Dounia and her mother because if he had then the two would consider breaking off the engagement with more difficulty. 2.Dostoevsky mocks Lebeziatnikov by describing the disparity between his physique (scrawny, little, etc) and his arrogant character. He also makes Lebeziatnikov look like a mindless follower to any idea that becomes fashionable. 3. Luzhin gave Sonia a ten ruble note to help Katerina Ivanovna. 4. Katerina Ivanovna had the funeral brunch in spite of her financial circumstance because of her pride. She wanted to boast that she lived well-off and not like the rest of them. Katerina did not want anyone to pity her or her circumstance and instead have them think that she rose above them. 5.When Katerina’s landlady helps with the funeral brunch Katerina resents her because she blames her landlady for the miserable guests that appear at the brunch. Also, because Katerina holds her in contempt due to the manner she dressed for the festivities that she expected to center around herself. 6. Some ironic circumstance during the funeral brunch 7. Luzhin attempted to incriminate Sonia for stealing his 100 rubles. He did this because he wanted to appear correct about his judgment on Sonia and caus e Raskolnikov to have a falling out with his family. 8. Raskolnikov figures out Luzhin’s motives. . Lebeziatnikov shows his integrity by going to Sonia’s aid when accused of theft. Not to mention he spoke well of her and did not judge her despite her prostitution. 10. Marmeladov’s brunch is both pathetic and humorous because his family tried to honor him but instead only ruin fell onto them and humorous because Katerina acts comical throughout the brunch. She argues with her landlady and the tenants cause her to fuss all the more. 11. Raskolnikov approaches Sonia by asking her to choose between Luzhin and her stepmother to remain alive as a way to compel her to understand his acts of murder. 2. Raskolnikov goes through two main emotions before confessing to Sonia; he at first becomes excited to tell her and share his guilt to feel better but then becomes frightened and turned pale right before his confession. 13. Raskolnikov saw that Sonia and Lizaveta both had childlike characteristics in their fear. 14. Sonia reacts with sympathy toward Raskolnikov after he confesses. 15. Sonia eagerly holds Raskolnikov’s living situation and needs responsible for his crime in order to make the murders more comprehensible. 6. Raskolnikov’s theory sounds base when he tries to explain it to Sonia. 17. Raskolnikov attributes the crimes to his own vanity. 18. Sonia advises Raskolnikov to confess his crimes and suffer through punishment for redemption. 19. Egbrde 20. Sonia attempts to give Raskolnikov the cross to help him confess and work toward inner peace. 21. Raskolnikov is not ready to receive his â€Å"cross† yet because he still feels like the circumstance situated themselves in his favor because he does not fall in with the â€Å"ordinary† people.Lesson 8: 1. Out on the street Katerina acted out of exasperation. By dressing up the children and forcing them to sing and dance on the streets she tries to find a way of providin g from them without relying on Sonia. Katerina Ivanovna behavior resembled a madwoman but can be justified due to her tragic situation. 2. While on the street many of the spectators followed Katerina, very few gave her money and most laughed at her performance. People from this time would react without neglect.In viewing a homeless seemingly insane woman out on the street with her children begging they might offer her help or money but her actions would not be seen as a joke. In today’s world such circumstances would provoke favorable reaction. 3. Dounia does not judge and goes as far as offering her life to Raskolnikov. Instead of scolding him she tries to justify his actions with the information she now knows about the underlying investigation. 4. Katerina feels she has suffered through so much in her life that she has no need for a priest because she has no sins for the priest to absolve.Her attitude suggests her loss of faith in God. 5. Churches do not have the obligation to help those in their congregation. 6. Katerina does not act too exaggerated to arouse the reader’s sympathy. Her sickness and the inability to conform to her life cause some form of pity if not for her then for her children. 7. Svidrigailov places Katerina’s children in a respectable orphanage and leaves them all money for their bringing up. 8. Svidrigailov reveals to Raskolnikov that he lives next to her apartment and overheard his confession. 9.Raskolnikov thinks Luzhin has sent the letter to Dounia. 10. Because Svidrigailov has overheard Raskolnikov’s confession to Sonia he becomes worried that Svidrigailov will use the information to further his designs for Dounia. 11. Razumihin did once believe Raskolnikov the true murderer of the pawnbroker but now after Nikolay’s confession he thinks Raskolnikov could not have been the murderer. 12. Raskolnikov does not believe that Porfiry suspects Nikolay because of their last encounter. 13. Porfiry comes to s ee Raskolnikov for an explanation and to accuse Raskolnikov of murder. 14.Porfiry reveals his reasons why he began to suspect Raskolnikov as the murder, why he believes Nikolay takes on the burden of another, and why Raskolnikov should confess before his arrest. 15. Nikolay confessed because he believed in accepting suffering. 16. Porfiry openly calls Raskolnikov a murderer. 17. Porfiry proposes to speak to the judge in his favor if Raskolnikov confesses himself. 18. Raskolnikov does not care about lessening the sentence. 19. Porfiry warns Raskolnikov of committing suicide. He asks Raskolnikov to leave a letter disclosing the location of the objects he stole. 20. Svidrigailov wanted to 21.Marfa Petrovna and Svidrigailov orally agreed that: he would never leave her, he would always ask for her permission to travel anywhere, he would never take a permanent mistress, he could choose his maids if he asked her directly, he would not fall in love with someone of their class, and he would tell her openly of his feelings. 22. We find out from Svidrigailov that Dounia was compassionate, chaste, and susceptible by flattery. 23. Svidrigailov has engaged himself to a fifteen year old girl with a family of terrible circumstance. He is very fond of the child-like appearance and has brought money as well as jewelry to his new fiance. 4. Svidrigailov attributes his ability to seduce women with principles to flattery. 25. The new engagement between the fifteen-year-old girl and Svidrigailov would, to say the least, disgust the reader. The new engagement is a surprise but the depravity of the act serves to expose the true character of Svidrigailov. Lesson 9: 1. Svidrigailov traps Dounia by sending her a letter about Raskolnikov’s murders and then by placing her brother’s fate in her hands. Dounia prepared herself by taking the late Marfa Petrovna’s revolver and using it for self-defense.However, after discharging it twice and only grazing Svidrigailov sligh tly she cannot kill the man and instead pleads for her freedom. 2. According to Svidrigailov Raskolnikov suffers because jbhiugbuibi; 3. Svidrigailov offers to take Dounia, her brother, and mother away with him away to help Raskolnikov. 4. Dounia accuses Svidrigailov of poisoning his late wife and this suggestion only emboldens Luzhin’s earlier implications about Marfa Petrovna’s death. 5. Svidrigailov also wants Dounia to love him or at the very least accept him aside from a physical relationship. . Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov both hallucinate because of the persons they harmed, suffer because of their ideology, and act however they please whether for positive or negative. 7. Because Raskolnikov confesses his crime and begins to reject his theory he moves closer to becoming a better person unlike Svidrigailov who lacks remorse. And though they both perform acts of random kindness Svidrigailov more often than not has an underlying reason. Also, Svidrigailov does not i solate himself the way Raskolnikov has done despite their similar ideology. 8. Bgsjbgfvkdeb 9.Bgrde 10. Svidrigailov commits suicide because of Dounia’s rejection, he can no longer be happy pleasing himself because he has found something he desperately wants but cannot have. Because of Dounia’s rejection his â€Å"happy† world crashes and he realizes the mistake in his life has been. 11. When Svidrigailov shoots himself Raskolnikov contemplates confessing himself and going to see his mother. 12. While visiting his mother the two have an intimate moment alone. Pulcheria tries to justify Raskolnikov’s behavior throughout her visit after reading his article â€Å"On Crime. Raskolnikov tries to make amends to his mother for causing her so much grief before he confesses to his crime but even then continues to worry his mother. 13. At the crossroads Rodia kisses the ground in an attempt to publically declare himself as a murderer. 14. Svidrigailov’s sui cide causes Raskolnikov to such a shock that he walks out of the Police Station without admitting to his crime. 15. After hearing about Svidrigailov’s suicide from Ilia Petrovich Sonia’s presence waiting outside prevents Raskolnikov from leaving without confessing to murder. 16.In my opinion, the Epilogue stands as an enlightening piece needed to complete the book. Without the Epilogue the reader would question whether or not Raskolnikov redeemed himself and ask about the situation within the family. 17. Raskolnikov must fulfill a sentence of hard labor in the second degree for eight years. 18. Considering all the testimony in favor of Raskolnikov the sentence was severe enough in my opinion. Even without the insanity plea Raskolnikov’s character did not mean to cause horrible harm, his intentions though not justified can allow for some mitigating effect in his case. 9. Razumihin manages to bring into light the good deeds Raskolnikov did during the trial. He tes tified that Raskolnikov helped a student until his death and even continued to aid the student’s father, placing him in a hospital until his death. The widowed landlady, too, testified that Raskolnikov had gone into a burning building to save two children and received marks from such an event. 20. Dounia and Razumihin ended up married. 21. I do believe Pulcheria knew about her son’s crimes but refused to believe it because the corruption overwhelmed her.Not only from the article but also from the rumors that had been around when they had first came to St. Petersburg were more than enough to show Pulcheria some form of distortion in her son’s character. 22. Rodia acted indifferent inside prison. 23. The rest of the prisoners despised Raskolnikov because of his atheistic believes. 24. Raskolnikov’s attitude for Sonia changed after she became ill and no longer visited him. 25. Pride made Raskolnikov ill in prison. 26. Raskolnikov does not seize believing in his theory because he dreams of a world with similar beliefs that some are chosen to live and others must not.He also believes that he did nothing wrong and does not feel guilty. 27. While ill Raskolnikov dreams of a world-wide plague affecting everyone. The â€Å"chosen† and the â€Å"pure† escape death but those affected suffer from an illness much like egoism, the persons cannot find a way to live with each other and in short term conclude to killing one another. 28. According to Raskolnikov he fails as a successful criminal because he failed to complete his act without being caught. 29. His love, affection, and newly acquired senses of renewal manage to save Raskolnikov and in a way redeem his character.